THE AMERICAN PIT BULL TERRIER ORIGINS By Mariano Peinado
What always it has been an absolute priority for all the breeders of authentic American Pit Bull Terrier, since this breed dog was originated 500 years ago, the selection went from A. P. B. T. with good disposition toward the human being, eliminating radically of the breeding to all those animals that showed the most minimum gesture of aggressive without any reason to the people. Always the selection of breeding of this breed dog to our days, has been directed toward the equilibrium in all its senses.
Different theories about the American Pit Bull Terrier (APBT) origins exist, of which the Mariano Peinado (FIAPBT & IADCRO) theory, is one of the most based internationally with higher weight.
The own Peinado says; “The absolute truth was lost at night of the times and what here I expose, it is my humble deduced opinion of the investigations that I began since 1985 about this subject”.
With the theory of the APBT origins, it happens of equal way that with other breed dogs, and other animal species, where its origin is not known for sure, but by the studies and investigations realised, yes can indicate to us somehow approximate, as they could happen.
According to the Mariano Peinado theory, the landlord that gave rise to the origin the American Pit Bull Terrier, was based on already extinct a Spanish breed, the Spanish Alaunt. In the down place, you would find some notes of interest reflected in some old books, referring to the Alaunt.
Spanish Alano in the middle
of century XIX, moments before a bullfight of bulls in
This theory is directed by two parallel ways but in different places:
1º- The first way in which the American Pit Bull Terrier began to originate itself, was outlined 500 years ago, when the Spanish conquerors in the America colonization, bring in their boats several dogs of the Spanish Alaunt breed, so that they were facilitating them open way in the fight with the natives of the American South and Center.
With the course of the time, already established the colonists of Spain with his Alaunt in land of the American South and Center, these were to stud with dogs that lived there and without defined breed, originating a new and interesting variety of strong and powerful dogs, which contributed diverse benefits to owned those who them.
Later, the spanish colonists in their
continuous advance and conquering eagerness, also fought against Indian tribes
of North America, who offered major resistance and disadvantages that the South
indigenous tribes. Tribes like for example; The Sioux, Cheyennes,
Comanches, Cherokee, the feared Apache and especially
those tribes who belonged to the Iroquesa
Confederation in the United States Northeast, since were rather better
coordinated and prepared to each other, to confront a fight common and in
addition were better strategists, doing all the tribes as if a single it was.
This Confederation was also well-known with the name of Haudenosaunee
or Hodinonhsioni. Its capital was located
where today is the Siracusa city in New
York State. The Confederation was formed originally by five tribes; The
Little by little the spaniards, to get be the first european owners of almost all the American South and Center. The spaniards also were the first european owners, of a good part than at present is made up the United States of America; Florida, Louisiana, California, Mississippi, New Mexico, Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, Nevada, Arkansas, South Dakota , Arizona, Oklahoma, Texas, etc. until these places were adjudged to Mexico, when Mexico became independent from Spain in 1822. The spanish influence of long ago at present, is even felt of diverse ways in these places after so many years, not only with the dogs.
Like peculiar note to say, that the dogmen of the three last mentioned States, Arizona, Oklahoma and Texas, they were to a great extent the people in charge of the evolution more important than it is the American Pit Bull Terrier of the present time. Not in vain, the three better breeders (known) for all times of this wonderful and noble breed dog, lived in each on those States; Maurice Carver in San Antonio, Texas, Earl Tudor in Oklahoma and the Reverend Howard Heinzl in Phoenix, Arizona.
By North America territories, the spanish colonists also had to fight against the British colonists, which and peculiarly, in view of the wonderful results that contributed the dogs to the spanish colonists, copied taking with himself native dogs of them of prey of their country (mainly of white color), so that they also helped them in his fights against the Indians, Spaniards and French.
War dogs in the American Civil War. Year 1875.
Passed the years and for diverse reasons, the spanish Alaunt with the british dogs were mixed and these as well, also were to stud with the mixed crossings of Alaunt with the dogs that already lived in America before arriving the spaniards. As a result of this combination, a new variety of dogs was generated extraordinary and incredible, impelled positively and effectively by the denominated the hybrid vigor or heterosis that provided the spanish Alaunt.
Of that one diversity of cross was outlined a new breed dog, which, we called in nowadays American Pit Bull Terrier, although at those moments logically, even needed them to evolve in its fusion with the second parallel way that also made originated the breed happened in Great Britain, for to define its phenotype and genotype that them own in the nowadays. This new breed dog, with time got to surpass in qualities and virtues to the powerful spanish Alaunt.
2º- The second parallel way in which the American Pit Bull
Terrier began to originate itself, happened in
For the great admiration that the British dogmen felt by the spanish Alaunt more than 400 years ago, by the vitality, fierceness, chaste and strength which they demonstrated in the different fights and huntings where they were used, concerned to its country a great amount of them, who, went away settling down in different points from the United Kingdom accomplish a stallion mission (stud), for this way, to introduce new genes in their native dogs of prey without defined breed (predominated white color in them) and open blood, to try to improve in which to quality of his dogs.
American Pit Bull Terrier when were denominated like Old English Bulldog.
The project was obtained successful, thanks to the fort positive and effective impulse of equally denominated hybrid vigor or heterosis that provided the spanish Alaunt to the British dogs. The merit and the credits of the spanish Alaunt to improve the quality of the British native dogs of prey, were silenced and buried by most of the British dogmen by obvious reasons to keep the competitor secret, but more especially even by political discords reasons between the United Kingdom and Spain. Therefore, at present ignorance in this subject, a pity.
Other American Pit Bull Terrier of the time. Picture by Howitt in 1798.
Of those combinations in the
The official name of American Pit Bull Terrier occurred for him in 1898, by American Mr. C.Z. Bennet, when on that same year he founded the Official Organism United Kennel Club (UKC), recognizing the American Pit Bull Terrier like pure breed dog and registering them in his lists and granting pedigree to them with his genealogical trees, like a any other breed dog, realising this way a memorable work and great zootechnical rigor of that time in favour of the American Pit Bull Terrier.
In this engraving of Abraham Cooper of 1817, they appear “Crib” and “Rose”, a pair of American Pit Bull Terrier own of that time.
Previously to year 1898, to the American Pit
Bull Terrier was denominated to him with different names, depending
the country. In
The creation of the American Pit Bull Terrier, as much in America as in Great Britain, had to the search by the dogmen of long ago in find a complete work dog, that adapted perfectly at the time of developing any type of work, by very hard which they were the circumstances to elaborate it and that the conventional dogs could not exert. http://www.fiapbt.net/5.html
The Butcher and his APBT. He APBT have always been associated so much with butchers. This dates back to when they were used to control animals in market stalls. A strong, determined dog was needed to grip and hold unruly animals about to be butchered.
The APBT were bred and prized for their grip and courage (Gameness). Porcelain more than 100 years ago. Three APBT hunting Wild boar.
Fighting APBT. Fighting Dogs Catching their Breath painting by Sir Edwin Henry Landseer in 1839.
As I said previously, the APBT origin was like work dog and not for to fight with those of its same specie, although it is true that the dog fights, it went an activity to consider within the history of the breed. Nowadays, this activity logically is illegal.
With the ban in
In order to secure to the downsizing, the selection it did not consist to crossing his dogs with others smaller and different breed dogs, no, since to do it thus, would suppose lost safe of the qualities and the virtues that already the APBT owned from their beginning of breed dog, more than 200 years back of hard selection. The downsizing consisted, in crossing to the best smaller dogs (all of them pure APBT) so that this way, were geting more agility and quicker that required the fighting dogs, so dogs with greater functionality and resistance but without losing “Gameness” that already brought since their origin, quality that differentiated to them from the rest of breed dogs and that with much time and effort had cost to the breeders, to obtain it and to fix it to the genes of his dogs. In addition this downsizing, supposed to the breeders and fans a greater comfort of mobility and maintenance of his dogs
For the APBT breeders in the selection of his respective breedings, the “Gameness” was the fundamental thing to conserve in his dogs of them and they were not arranged to lose it in exchange for a reduction of the size. Nevertheless these breeders, secured their intention to reduce the size of their dogs without resorting to other breed dogs, fixing the phenotype of the APBT practically which we know at present and without lost the “Gameness”, characteristic that continues being unique and exclusive of this breed dog.
The APBT exterminated plagues of rats. The APBT were used in long ago in the mines extracting the coal pulling trucks on rails.
When the immigrants of the United Kingdom especially from Ireland, began to arrive with their dogs at North America since 1800, is when the two parallel ways that gave rise to the breed began to fusion in a single way, already of one more defined way with regard to the phenotype and genotype that own the American Pit Bull Terrier of nowadays.
Certainty of the names of several British breeders is had that moved to North America with their dogs, like for example; Charles Lloyd began to concern english dogs to America from year 1840. Also from England the also breeders arrived to USA, Con Feeley, Frank G. Henry, Richmond, Delihant, Farmer, Earl Tudor, Joe Corvino among others.
John P. Colby (1875 - 1941) and his son Louis with Colby's "GOLDY" . October 1922.
From Ireland they arrived at the USA; W.S. Semmens, William J. Lightner, Jim Corcovan (this it went to the USA to dispute the heavy weights world Championship title against Sullivan and later was stayed as Police in Boston), Mc Hammock, Bob Hemphill, Bob Wallace, Johnny McDonald (Gas House), John Noonan and other many.
William J. Lightner Bob Wallace Bob Hemphill Jim Corcoran with Corcoran's "BIDDY"
The dogs arrived from
The dogs of the breeders previously mentioned, were American Pit Bull
Terrier been born in
Same of the best old timers. Left to right and up; Leo Kinard, Maurice Carver, Bert Clouse in the back of Earl Tudor, Bob
Hemphill, Bob Wallace, George Saddler. Down; Floyd Boudreaux, Rob Lewis, Don Maloney and
Scotty Nelson. Photo taken
The popular breeder Charles Lloyd, transferred
around the 1880 from
put to the breed the name of American Pit Bull
Terrier, in my opinion was the more suitable name than it was
possible to be given. Deserving of the term of
“American”, for be America one
of both places where the breed was originated, especially for be the place
where later it was defined as far as which we know it at present, when the two
parallel varieties or ways fused in only one. In addition, was in
The terms “Pit Bull” were additions to recall the place where the American Pit Bull Terrier faced or harassed to the bull. That work was very useful for the butchers and of great importance for the hard selection of the own breed. The term “Terrier” did not given to the breed to have mixed with some class of Terrier no, rather was addition for being a breed that was used to work under earth (Terrier = Earth), hunting inside the caves and burrows, extracting the coal of the mines of long ago, etc.
The new name of American Pit Bull Terrier for the breed, later also was given by the British dogmen to his dogs, being finally to the passage of time in that country like Pit Bull Terrier, obvious without the American. These dogs were being tried like the same breed, by their great similarity of phenotype and genotype with the American APBT. This similarity was due, to the dominant genetic contribution that passed on the spanish Alaunt by the two parallel routes of the origin already described.
Logically, when were located in Great Britain the people not called them like APBT, they were continued calling them with other names like Bull and Terrier, Old English Bulldog or Pit Dog. When I talk about to the British dogs with the name of APBT, is for facilitating the understanding to the readers and so that they really were the same dogs but with different names. Passed the years, after to be Officially baptized like APBT in 1898 in the USA, the British breeders also they finished unifying the name of his dogs by Pit Bull Terrier, but without the American ahead for obvious reasons.
After that, in 1909, will be founded the American Dog Breeders Association (ADBA) and by his good doing in the conservation of the original APBT, it obtained that nowadays will be the APBT Canine Mother Internationally, recognized it by to the FIAPBT in the year 2000, by not to have yielded with the course of the years not one step backwards, than he is the authentic, genuine, pure was based and original APBT. The FIAPBT give its recognition by it, is thanked for it and animates to them to continue doing the same good work.
In 1935, the K.C of
“Jim the Dandy”, of 33 l., was the APBT that was used to make the standard from the Staffordshire Bull Terrier.
A year later, on
In this picture we can see the great American Pit Bull Terrier called Colby´s “primo”, at 36l., whose breeds name was later changed and whose pattern was used to establish the standard of the new breed AST.
Even if now the names and standard of the APBT
To emphasize, the most important policy in the breeding selection of the American Pit Bull Terrier since its origin to nowadays, is to reproduce American Pit Bull Terrier with an exceptional disposition in the relation with the people, rejecting in the breeding the units that showed the minimum gesture of aggressiveness without reasons. After that, the more fundamental genetic characters that fix inside the breed were and in the present continue being: Intelligence, class, chaste, value, tenacity, balance, attitude - positive personality, ability, resistance, powerful prey, a provided functional phenotype that allows him to combine agility-power and with a good bony constitution. By this, the APBT is the breed dog of work by excellence, with great desire to please to its owner.
Notes of interest in some books referring to the Spanish Alaunt
The existence of Alaunts in
exist about their origin. One of them aims at a possible Iberian origin,
defending its introduction in the
Also its character was clear defined around its function of dog of takes hold; " not taking by hunger nor by prize, but by right nature that God gave him”; (disposition to realise prey).
The first event in the line of bull-baiting historically accepted, goes back to the 1209. Historian of Stamford, explains that a good day the Lord of the city taking a walk by the walls of his castle to enjoy the primaveral sun, had the occasion to see in a meadow two bulls fighting by the same female, until the dogs of a local butcher sent themselves against one of the bulls and they gave death him, after a ferocious fight. The vision of such spectacle liked so much to Lord that gave to the union of butchers the meadow where the fight had taken place, with the condition of which every year the spectacle was repeated.
This type of spectacle enjoyed a remarkable diffusion and success in all Europe, throughout six centuries between the years 1200 and the 1800, the fights between animal at least comprised of the habitual diversions of all the social classes, from the dominant classes to the lowest layers of the population.
Between years 1387-1388, in the ¨Hunting Book¨, Gastón Fébus speaks about dogs ¨Alaunts able to cross other bloods, to which it cuts the ears to them to the evenness to avoid to them wounded in the fight”.
Than doubt does not fit is that these dogs were very extended, like proves its appearance in works of the great painters, authentic writers of the reality of the time. Thus, for example, the dogs are Alaunts that Velazquez in the hunting of the hole shapes, that is in the National Gallery of London; those that Goya in his capture of a bull reflects; or those that appear in an engraving of the romantic Blanchard French, or in works of Cervantes and Lope de Vega.
English, Germans and French people, astonished by the aspect and the functions at the Spanish Alaunt, also called " Bulldog" and " Preydog" , they concerned to his countries, as they demonstrate writings to it of the time, being outlined therefore the Bulldog types (dog for the bull), Bullenbeiszer (takes hold bulls) and Bulldog of Bordeaux, respectively. Breeds dogs that would make be born others, in the British Islands (old Base of mastif and bullmastif), in Germany (old Base of the Bóxer and German Dogo), in France (Base of the old Bulldogs of Bordeaux), in Italy (known Base of Napolitan Mastiff and Cane Corso), etc. all these present nations and their breed dogs come as well from the same common, coincident trunk with the Spanish Alaunt.
In America the denominations of Prey dogs or Dogs for the bull in Mexico, Brave dog in Colombia, Bulldog of Cuba in the Caribbean, Cordovan Dog of Fight and Argentine Bulldog in Argentina or Fila Brasileiro in Brazil, are not more than the symbols of different original varieties all from the Spanish Alaunt who took initially in the American colonization.
Spanish Alaunts that the conquerors took to
In the stories of the writers of the time, it was spoken of the Alaunts that the Spanish explorers took to cross the virgin forests or to watch the campings. There was some of these stories, in which they narrated infinity of anecdotes with respect to intelligence, bravery and fidelity that owned the Alaunts.
Some Alaunts deserved by their services that assigned one pays to them. Fernandez de Oviedo speaks to us of a Alaunt called “Becerrillo", which always accompanied to the conqueror Diego de Salazar. One said that ten soldiers with “Becerrillo", were made fear more than one hundred soldiers without the dog. For that reason it had its part in booties, and received one pays like the one soldier.
It had several scars of slings, like a veteran, but its deserved good fame of gained brave it without being bloodthirsty nor to show no mercy with the won one, a dog just. The end of “Becerrillo" was like of its son " Leoncillo" , to die crossed to slings in fight with the Indians.
it was the dog of Núñez de Balboa, and therefore it
was the first European dog that saw the
The Alaunt called “Amadís”, towards the 1570 accompanied to the spanish colonists in its campaigns against the Chimilas indians. The life of “Amadís” was not long, died to Indians arrow.
Thanks to the Alaunts that the Spanish colonists took, they could discover footpaths without knowing the land. In the fight with the natives, the Alaunts caused to as much astonishment and terror between the Indians like the firearms.
In the book “the True History of Conquest of the New Spain” of Mr. Bernal Diaz of the Castle, we can observe in the first chapters as mentions on the expeditions of Mr. Francisco Hernandez de Cordoba, who when they arrived at the coasts than at the moment it is Champoton, Logwood, the Indians of this zone fought strong to them and in this expedition he bring with himself several Alaunts males and females, and for to save his lives they fled of that place quickly, leaving in that place the Alaunts that they had for the offensive.
After all this wine the second expedition by Captain Juan de Grijalva, and says the author of the book (that this only does like commentary), that when they arrived with the fleets at the coast from champoton, entered an expedition inland to explore the land. The explorers (including the author of the book), found the Alaunts and with them to its descendants, the author said that these were smaller but more fierce that the originals Alaunts. The author in another commentary says that those descendants of the Alaunts who had left years back, they were crossed witn dogs of this place and the result they were those dogs. The author of this book, was a soldier who survived the three expeditions.
THE AMERICAN PIT BULL TERRIER, A BREED DOG
The American Pit Bull Terrier is a breed dog whose components, present common characters that distinguish them of other representatives of its specie and that they are genetically transmissible.
The Mr. Pr. Triquet´s definition than is a breed dog, is indeed and exactly the exposed thing previously defining to the American Pit Bull Terrier like breed dog, but the peculiar thing of this subject, is that the FCI adopt in 1984 the Mr. Pr. Triquet´s definition to define the meaning of breed dog.
There some people that says that the APBT is not a breed dog, because is selected by his function and not by his standard and that the selection by his Official standard, is what it would determine to the APBT like breed dog.
As I said in the beginning of this section, the absolute truth does not have nobody, but this commentary has easy answer to understand that indeed the American Pit Bull Terrier yes is a breed dog and besides oldest and pure than exists in nowadays, from her descend other quite popular breed dogs nowadays, in which at present time nobody dares to put in doubt which they are not pure breed dogs.
To the APBT is selected by his International official standard, under the directives of the ADBA and in addition, also the APBT is selected by his function to realise several types of work and sports, for his great versatility are able to realise any class of work that realise the other breed dogs and in addition is enabled to surpass and to improve it. By this same the APBT is the Breed Dog of Work for Excellence, surpassing by much in this sense to the other breed dogs. The Official standard of the APBT, is more studied and verified so that the APBT that are within, are very well equipped physical functionality to develop the work which it is, by very hard that is the circumstances.
Those that put in evidence their disinformation, I must indicate to them that the APBT yes it is a pure breed dog, since having his International Official standard, his International Official Pedigree and International Official Organisms which they endorse to the 100% to the APBT like pure breed dog, like for example; UNITED KENNEL CLUB (UKC) since 1898, INTERCONTINENTAL KENNEL CLUB since 1976, the INTERNATIONAL APBT FEDERATION (FIAPBT) since 1985 and especially the AMERICAN DOG BREEDERS ASSOCIATION (ADBA) (International Canine Mother of the APBT) since 1909, it is what does that the American Pit Bull Terrier although it hurts to some people, is a pure breed dog in all sense and older and pure than the majority of the breed dogs that we know at the present time.
These anti APBT also justify their affirmation, of which the APBT is not a breed dog, by the mere do of which to some units of APBT not were used to work and yes for fight with other dogs of his same breed. A thing does not have to do with the other, so that if we took it to like a justification not to consider to the APBT like a breed dog, we could not affirm that the APBT is not a breed dog for the simple reason, that the immense majority of the APBT never fought and passed through the anonymity carrying out daily works that to them their owners entrusted.
By this same rule of three, we would not to consider breed dogs to all those breed dogs that also made fight, like for example: to the American Staffordshire Terrier, Staffordshire Bull Terrier, Sharpei, Dogo Argentine, Presa Canary, Tosa Inu and an endless of breed dogs that also were used for these illegal aims nowadays. The simple one is a great barbarism to contemplate this hypothesis, the one of not recognizing like breed dogs those breeds that were used some of their components for the fights between dogs. In my opinion, who has boldness to affirm that they are not breed dogs, those breeds that were used some of their components for the fights of dogs, are not making another thing that to dynamite the foundations of his own breeds.
Is not of justice, that there people that wants to make believe to the Governmental Institutions, that to all the APBT were selected only for the fights of dogs and that only be given this “utility”, for this way if they prick the hook, being able to damage and harming this wonderful and noble breed dog. The governors of some countries, have prohibited to the APBT for believe very much lies and calumnies of some "Experts" of breeds.
The fights of dogs like a “supposed hobby” for somebody, were clearly registered in several books, daily magazines of that time, registries, etc., etc. and works (Greater hunting, mining dogs extracting the coal in carts on rails, dogs to exterminate plagues of rats, dogs of the butchers, etc. etc.) logically no.
This last one, is similar to which it happens with a sportsman and a worker of the human species; The work of the football player alias “Pele”, by hundreds of years that pass, will be always remembered by the notes of history, like one of the best football players of all times. Nevertheless, the best carpenter of the same time of “Pele”, nowadays nobody remember him and much less pass hundreds of years by not to have been clear their work in any registry, book, magazines, etc., etc. but that do not mean, that carpenter had the same or better level working the wood that “Pele” playing soccer.
Returning to the selection of the APBT, is possible to emphasize that the standard of the APBT is somewhat more flexible than the other breed dogs, but having his limits very marked as far as weight, height, proportions and angulations, among others physical aspects. So why this flexibility of the standard of the APBT, be due simply and by the different selections on the part of the breeders, since depending the type of work to which one goes away to him to entrust the future to APBT, it would be selected to him with one or the other appearance, but respecting the breeders the Official standard, being ALWAYS within it.
The fights of dogs, are part of the history of our breed dog to consider and I do not deny it, but we understand that belongs to the pass times and in the present times these practice already no longer have capacity for the breed nor for his fans.
In order to guarantee the future of the American Pit Bull Terrier, in view of the negative present circumstances around, is good thing to understand and to be informed of his past time. Some of these anti APBT, do not know or rather they do not want to know, that this breed dog, the APBT, began to originate 500 years ago with the intention of later realising all type of works for benefit of the society and up to 330 or 340 years, is when was introduced to some of his components for fights between dogs.
Then, Why as much eagerness to affirm that the APBT were created to fight and only for that activity? This is very easy to understand, so by this way, lying, they will have easier to secure to the destruction and therefore the extinction of the APBT, leaving them to them the open doors and without competition for to sell better the breed dogs than they breed, The reason? The money.